But figuring out what happened up to this point has been difficult. Here is what we know based on the information received so far from police.
Samuel's disappearance and apparent death are under investigation.
Police say Samuel was last in school at Holbrook Elementary in Cy-Fair ISD.
While police have said April 30 was the last time anyone outside Samuel's family saw him, his grandmother Tonya Olson said she saw him after that on May 2 while he and his cousins visited her house.
She added that she last spoke with the 6-year-old about a week and a half ago.
"So when's the last time you saw him?" A reporter asked Olson on June 1.
"May 2 is the last time I physically had my hands on Sam," she said.
WATCH: Grandmother of missing 6-year-old boy issues tearful plea for help
Theresa Balboa, the girlfriend of Samuel's father Dalton Olson, reported Samuel missing.
According to police, she said she last saw Samuel around 7 a.m. on this day.
"I was going to take Sam to school when his mother showed up with the police officer, or who I was under the impression to be a police officer, and they demanded me to release Sam," explained Balboa.
Balboa said she handed the young boy to the mom because the parents are in a custody battle.
However, HPD Assistant Chief of Criminal Investigations Command Heather Morris would say in a briefing just days later that during the investigation, they were provided evidence that Samuel's mom was at her own home the morning of May 27.
Houston police issue a missing juvenile flyer for Samuel.
At this point, Houston police and Texas EquuSearch volunteers are looking for Samuel.
"I've literally tried to do everything from the very beginning to do what's best for my son," said his father Dalton. "That is my whole world and I can't imagine if anything happened to him and I believe he's still out there."
"I've worked many, many of these cases, I don't have a good feeling," said Texas Equusearch Founder Tim Miller. "Nobody can find anybody that's credible that can tell us the last time he was seen and where."
May 31 is also the same day that a search warrant was executed at a residence in the 15000 block of the Gulf Freeway, where Balboa lives, police said.
Along with collecting evidence, a 2012 Dodge Avenger was towed from the location to be searched and analyzed.
Morris said that's the vehicle Balboa primarily drove.
Authorities added that even though Samuel's disappearance was reported on May 27, he may have gone missing weeks ago.
A body believed to be Samuel's is found inside a Best Western motel room in Jasper, Texas.
A person was in custody for questioning, who was revealed to be Balboa.
It is with great sadness that I share with you that a body - of who we believe to be 6-year-old Samuel Olson - was recovered in a motel room in Jasper, Texas, earlier this evening. 1/2— Troy Finner (@TroyFinner) June 2, 2021
A possible suspect is in custody and will be interviewed by our homicide investigators. More details will be provided at a news briefing tomorrow. I ask the entire Houston community to join HPD in sending prayers for Samuel and his family. 2/2 #hounews— Troy Finner (@TroyFinner) June 2, 2021
Balboa is charged with tampering with evidence.
Authorities said in a press conference that an anonymous Crime Stoppers tip led police to the discovery of the body.
Morris explained that Jasper police contacted Balboa at the motel and eventually discovered the body of a young child.
Balboa was taken into custody and is now in the Jasper County Jail.
While HPD believes the body belongs to Samuel, medical examiners will determine whether it is indeed the missing boy, police added.
Officials with HPD also confirmed that prior to Tuesday's discovery, Balboa was out on bond for assault with intent - impeding breath for a November 2020 case, where the complainant was Samuel's father.
A motive is unclear at this time. But police said if the body is Samuel's, they are unable to say how long he has been dead.
Authorities are now working to get Balboa returned to Harris County.
The case will be presented to the Harris County District Attorney's Office to determine if there will be more charges, Morris added.