Los Angeles County Sheriff's Sgt. Jay Royal says the 59-year-old comedian was taken into custody early Saturday after an alleged fight at his home in Calabasas.
Schimmel was booked in the county jail for investigation of spousal assault. He was later released on $50,000 bail.
A call seeking comment from Schimmel's agent was not immediately returned.
The comedian has been a frequent guest on Conan O'Brien's TV show and on Howard Stern's radio program. His 2008 memoir "Cancer on $5 a Day" chronicles his battle with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
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