The protests were part of a coordinated campaign to urge federal authorities to investigate the November 2006 shooting of Sean Bell. Three officers were acquitted of state charges last month.
Sharpton, shooting survivors Trent Benefield and Joseph Guzman, and Bell's fiancee, Nicole Paultre Bell, lined up and peacefully put their hands behind their backs as police put plastic handcuffs on them. Sharpton and Bell were placed in a police vehicle.
The civil rights leader is seeking a federal civil rights probe into Bell's shooting outside a Queens nightclub. The case raised questions about police use of deadly force in minority neighborhoods.
Sharpton had promised recently to "close this city down" with civil disobedience.
Bell was black, as are his friends Benefield and Guzman; the three officers acquitted in the case are Hispanic, black and white.
U.S. attorney spokesman Robert Nardoza said the case was under review, but he declined to comment further.