The National Transportation Safety Board took over as primary investigators of the crash that happened at about 1 a.m. Monday in the community about 90 miles north of Houston.
Apolo Diaz, of Kansas City, Missouri, who was the pilot of the Piper PA-32, was the lone fatality, according to the Texas Department of Public Safety.
The DPS added federal investigators are not releasing the names of the other people injured in the crash. All the occupants of the aircraft are adults.
According to DPS' initial findings, the plane appeared to be trying to land at the airport when it struck trees and crashed about 400 yards short of the runway.
Authorities said that after the crash, the pilot and passengers, some of whom were still conscious, were found around the plane.
Of the injured, one person was taken to a hospital in Houston, three people were taken to College Station, and the fifth person was taken to Temple for treatment.
The Madisonville airport is unmanned, meaning all aircraft have to radio in to be cleared to land. At night, lights are supposed to turn on to help guide pilots to the runway. It's unclear whether the lights were on or off at the time of the crash.
SkyEye report from helicopter reporter Tammy Rose over crash site