U.S. Sen. Charles Grassley introduced legislation this week to stiffen rules for schools seeking to attract foreign applicants with the promise of assistance to obtain a student visa, an effort he says will prevent want-to-be terrorists from exploiting vulnerabilities in the American student entry program.
"It's time to close the loopholes and clamp down on schools that have a poor track record with regard to foreign students," Grassley, R-Iowa, said.
Grassley pointed to findings of a recent ABC News investigation that found U.S. Homeland Security officials had lost track of some 6,000 foreign nationals who had overstayed the terms of their student visas in the past year and a half -- exploiting a security gap that was supposed to be fixed after the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks.
Despite repeated concerns raised by Congress, federal immigration officials have also continued to grant schools certification to accept overseas applicants even if the schools lack accreditation, state licensure, or any obvious measure of academic rigor.
There are now more than 9,000 schools on the government approved list. The list includes such top flight American colleges as Harvard and Yale, but it also includes 86 beauty schools, 36 massage schools and nine schools that teach horseshoeing. Foreign students can enter the U.S. on a visa to study acupuncture, hair braiding, or join academies that focus on tennis and golf. In one case, a tiny, state licensed career college in New York City continued to have four campuses on the Department of Homeland Security-certified schools list, even though five of the school's top officials -- including its president - were indicted on charges of visa fraud in May.
According to the indictment, 80 percent of the foreign students enrolled MicroPower Career Institute had delinquent attendance, putting them out of compliance with their visas. But the school did not report them, the indictment says. The school declined comment and all five school officials have pleaded not guilty in the case. DHS officials said they had no ability to de-list the school, even after the fraud indictments, because the school was entitled to administrative due process.
Grassley said his legislation would require schools to be accredited by an appropriate accrediting body in order to accept foreign students. He said it would also give Homeland Security officials the ability to immediately suspend school participation if they were failing to comply reporting requirements or fell under suspicion of fraud.
A spokeswoman for the Department of Homeland Security said the agency does not comment on pending legislation. But she added that the department would "fully support improving and enhancing programs that protect our country's national security."
She noted that Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is already hard at work trying to improve what officials there have acknowledged are shortcomings of the student visa monitoring program. ICE officials told ABC News, for instance, that it has undertaken a new program to deploy field representatives around the country to personally inspect schools that had been approved to accept foreign students. So far, 15 field representatives have been hired, with a plan to ultimately employ 60 around the country, according to spokesperson Carissa Cutrell.
The agency has also launched a program -- so far installed at one airport, but planned for others -- that will immediately alert a customs inspector if a student is attempting to re-enter the country after their status has been flagged by a school official.
"The Student and Exchange Visitor Program has made significant improvements to the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System, increased school and student oversight, and unveiled new policy guidance to close vulnerabilities and better protect our nation from individuals who try to exploit the U.S. visa system," Cutrell said.
An advocacy group for international students and educators, called NAFSA, has expressed concern that security questions surrounding student visas have created unwarranted fears about the risks those students pose. Rebecca Morgan, a NAFSA spokeswoman, noted that only 3 percent of the 61 million people who entered the United States on nonimmigrant visas in 2013 held student visas.
"It is important to understand that the other 97 percent are entirely unmonitored," she said. "Students are the only ones that are monitored.
Morgan also said that efforts to attract foreign students should be encouraged, not impeded. "Generations of American foreign-policy leaders have pointed to educational exchanges as one of our most successful foreign policy tools, the most proven and effective way for the United States to build a foundation for dialogue and partnership with the rest of the world," she said.
Jill Welch, who oversees NAFSA public policy, called it "unfortunate that Senator Grassley's recent statements imply a false connection between foreign students and terrorism."
She said the legislation is "redundant because DHS already has the authority to shut down fraudulent programs after an investigation and due process."
The Grassley legislation is similar to a proposal introduced by Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) in 2012 that failed to pass. Grassley said that as the number of foreign students being issued visas has grown, the amount of risk posed by the program is expanding. He cited a recently released Brookings Institution report showing the number of visas in U.S. colleges and universities grew from 110,000 in 2001 to 524,000 in 2012.
"Despite this overwhelming increase, the technology and oversight of the student visa program has insufficiently improved," he said. "Now, 13 years after 9/11, we have sham schools setting up in strip malls without real classrooms. We have foreign nationals entering the U.S. with the intent to study, but then disappear and never attend a real class."
Thomas Kean 9/11 Commission Co-Chair told ABC News that he is stunned the federal government continues to lose track of so many foreign nationals who had entered the country with student visas. He noted that both the hijacker who flew the airplane into the Pentagon and the man who drove the van containing explosives into the World Trade Center garage in 1993 were student visa holders who were no-shows at school.
"It's been pointed out over and over and over again and the fact that nothing has been done about it yet... it's a very dangerous thing for all of us," Kean said. "The fact that there's been no action on this is very bothersome."
[Editor's note: An earlier version of this story said the group NAFSA opposes the Grassley measure. The group issued a statement calling the measure redundant but did not express a stance on the bill. A spokeswoman did not respond Friday when asked for NAFSA's position on the legislation.]