Cara Mund topped a field of 51 contestants to win the crowd in the New Jersey seaside resort, where most of the 97 Miss Americas have been selected.
In one of her onstage interviews, Mund said Trump, a Republican, was wrong to withdraw the U.S. from the climate accord aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming.
"It's a bad decision," she said. "There is evidence that climate change is existing and we need to be at that table."
In an interview with The Associated Press before preliminary competition began, Mund, who lives in Bismarck, North Dakota, said her goal is to be the first woman elected governor of her state.
She said she wants to see more women elected to all levels of government.
"It's important to have a woman's perspective," Mund, who had an internship in the U.S. Senate, told the AP. "In health care and on reproductive rights, it's predominantly men making those decisions."
An Ivy League graduate from Brown University who is headed to law school, Mund went to high school with Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Carson Wentz.
"I said, 'If Carson Wentz can do it, Miss North Dakota Cara Mund can become Miss America,'" she said after winning the title.
She is the first contestant from her state to win the Miss America crown.
Trump also figured in another question asked of a finalist onstage. Miss Missouri Jennifer Davis, who was first runner-up, was asked if Trump's presidential campaign colluded with Russia last year.
She said she does not think enough information has been revealed to support such a charge at this point.
"We should investigate it to its fullest extent, and if we do find evidence, the justice system should do their due diligence," she said.
The second runner up was Miss New Jersey Kaitlyn Schoeffel; third runner up was Miss District of Columbia Briana Kinsey, and fourth runner up was Miss Texas Margana Wood.
Wood, who is from Houston, slammed Trump during one of the question rounds about how he handled the Charlottesville riots in August when he said there were "very fine people on both sides."
"I think that the white supremacist issue, it was very obvious, that it was a terrorist attack. And I think that President Donald Trump should've made a statement earlier addressing the fact, and in making sure all Americans feel safe in this country. That is the number one issue right now," Wood said.
Her response drew some loud cheers from the audience.
Earlier Sunday, as a deadly hurricane was slamming her home state, Miss Florida Sara Zeng sent a message of support to those in harm's way - and was then eliminated from the competition.
As judges were narrowing the field of 51 contestants (each state plus the District of Columbia), they interviewed Zeng, a 22-year-old from Palm Coast, Florida, who noted that her family is safe.
But she expressed concern and support for friends and strangers endangered by Hurricane Irma, which was tearing its way up the Florida gulf coast on Sunday.
"I'm thinking about everyone in Florida every single day, but I know that regardless what happens, we'll all get through this together," Zeng said.
Shortly after her speech, judges read the names of the remaining Top 15 finalists, which did not include her.
Earlier in the week, Wood gave a shout-out to her flooded hometown, Houston; she won Wednesday night's swimsuit preliminary.
Zeng won Friday's swimsuit prelim, and promised she'd be part of the post-Irma cleanup and recovery effort, whether as Miss America or not.
The competition took place at Atlantic City's Boardwalk Hall, where it originated as a way to extend summer tourism to the weekend after Labor Day.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
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