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Judge Bill Moody ruled that restrictions that closed restaurants and other businesses deemed nonessential could stay in place.
In making his decision, Moody said that during the Spanish flu pandemic in the early part of the 20th century, city and county elected officials had authority to respond.
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The attorney general's office plans to appeal.
Meanwhile, three Air Force medical teams are expected to arrive in El Paso by the weekend.
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Texas reported more than 942,000 active COVID-19 cases and 18,589 deaths due to the virus, according to the Texas Department of State Health Services.
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