The 200 to 250 pound animal was left lying on a bench near Bostian Hall in the school's Brickyard area.
It wasn't clear how it was killed, but officials said they believe the animal died somewhere else and was brought onto campus.
State wildlife officials said they were taking the matter very seriously. While it is legal to hunt black bears in North Carolina, hunting season ended in all counties at the first of the year. Punishments for illegal hunting can range from jail time to a steep fine.
Investigators were looking through campus surveillance video for clues about who was responsible.
NCSU students are taking their finals this week.