A huge fire burned storage tanks for days at the ITC facility in Deer Park, starting on March 17.
Following the fire, a dike surrounding the tanks broke, leaking chemicals into Tucker Bayou.
The Harris County District Attorney's Office says large quantities of xylene and benzene flowed into the bayou.
"The discharge from the ITC fire into Tucker Bayou is a clear water pollution case," said Environmental Crimes Division Chief prosecutor Alex Forrest.
"People living in Deer Park and the other neighboring residential areas near ITC's plant deserve protection too," said Harris County District Attorney Kim Ogg.
ITC could face a fine of up to $100,000 per each of the five charges filed.