It was the second aggressive test-flight over the territory of the close U.S. ally in less than a month and it followed the sixth and most powerful nuclear test by North Korea to date on Sept. 3.
South Korea's Joint Chiefs of Staff said the missile traveled about 3,700 kilometers (2,300 miles) while reaching a maximum height of 770 kilometers (478 miles).
The missile was launched from Sunan, the site of Pyongyang's international airport.
North Korea last month used the airport to fire a Hwasong-12 intermediate range missile that flew over northern Japan.
The North declared it a "meaningful prelude" to containing the U.S. Pacific island territory of Guam and the start of more ballistic missile launches toward the Pacific Ocean.
South Korean experts said the August launch was Pyongyang's attempt to make missiles flying over Japan an accepted norm as it seeks to test new projectiles and win more military space in the region dominated by its enemies.
The Offices of Guam Homeland Security and Civil Defense said the latest launch posed no immediate threat to Guam or the Marinas.
South Korea's Defense Ministry said the country's military conducted a live-fire drill of a Hyunmoo-2 ballistic missile in response to the North's launch on Friday.
Seoul's presidential office said President Moon Jae-in has scheduled a National Security Council meeting to discuss the latest launch.
North Korea claimed its latest nuclear test was a detonation of a thermonuclear weapon built for its developmental intercontinental ballistic missiles.
The North flight-tested its Hwasong-14 ICBMs twice in July and analysts say the missiles potentially reach deep into the U.S. mainland when perfected.
North Korea's latest missile launch came days after the U.N. Security Council unanimously approved new sanctions over the nuclear test. The latest sanctions are not as tough as what the U.S. had sought, they are expected to have a significant impact.
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