Organizers say about 2,200 people were in the 3,000-seat First Baptist Church.
He spoke at the church's event, which was described as "an annual celebration of America's freedom and spiritual foundation."
Pence was seen wearing mask and encouraged other Texans to do so.
In a press conference with Gov. Greg Abbott, he commended the governor on reopening the economy and promised the Trump administration stands with Texas through the pandemic.
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"We're with you," he said. "We're going to stay with you. We're going to make sure that Texas, and your health care system in Texas, have the resources, have the supplies, [and] have the personnel to meet this moment."
Pence postponed planned rallies this week in Arizona and Florida, two other states with rising cases.
Robert Jeffress, the pastor of the 14,000-member, Southern Baptist church, is one of President Donald Trump's leading allies among conservative evangelical Christians.