She will open in the play Sept. 8 at Circle in the Square.
Preview performances begin Aug. 19 in what will be a revised and updated version of the play, which was an off-Broadway hit for the Public Theater in 1976 before transferring to Broadway for a run of more than 700 performances.
The new production will be directed by Shirley Jo Finney and choreographed by Hinton Battle, a three-time Tony winner.
"For Colored Girls...," a prose-poem portrait of black women in America, originally featured Shange and Trazana Beverley, who won a Tony for her performance.
Goldberg has been involved in productions of "Thoroughly Modern Millie," her own "Whoopi ... The 20th Anniversary" and a revival of August Wilson's "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom."