If convicted, Dougherty faces up to 10 years in prison and a $10,000 fine.
Tarleton State University police began investigating in December after a student working near Dougherty's office found a suspicious computer folder with his name on it, according to the Texas Attorney General's Office.
The student told campus police, who referred the case to the state attorney general's cyber crimes unit, where investigators allegedly uncovered several images and videos of child pornography on Dougherty's computer, authorities said.
Dougherty was a tenured professor specializing in learning disabilities, child and infant cognitive development and child sexual abuse, according to his resume.
Dougherty is no longer listed as a faculty member on the Web site of the university, about 75 miles southwest of Fort Worth.
A home number listed for Dougherty has been disconnected.