The former Pro Bowler has suffered a myriad of injuries over the past few years, and in an announcement Monday, he cited his body can't take "the punishment" that the NFL demands anymore.
Foster played six seasons with the Houston Texans before joining the Dolphins. He retires as the Texans' all-time rushing leader with 6,472 yards and 54 touchdowns.
"This game has been everything to me...my therapy, my joy, my solace and my enemy. I've learned to love every facet of this game, from the peak of accomplishment to the gutter of criticism, " Foster said.
The Dolphins signed Foster to a one-year, $1.5 million contract one week before training camp. The team met with Foster in the spring to get an update on his Achilles rehab and kept him on the short list.
Foster won the starting job during the preseason but his tenure as the starter lasted just two games. Foster injured his groin and hamstring in Miami's Week 2 loss to the New England Patriots and missed the next three games.
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(ESPN contributed to this report)