Trump's campaign hoped the formal nomination would both end the discord surging through the Republican Party and overshadow the convention's chaotic kickoff, including a plagiarism charge involving Melania Trump's address on opening night.
Alabama Sen. Jeff Sessions opened the nominating process with a hearty endorsement of Trump, declaring him "a warrior and a winner." There were flurries of dissent on the convention floor as states that Trump did not win recorded their votes, but he far outdistanced his primary rivals.
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He was put over the top by his home state of New York.
Convention officials gave some delegates won by Florida Sen. Marco Rubio and Ohio Gov. John Kasich to Trump, including all 19 from the District of Columbia. A delegate from the district accused the party of trying to quiet anti-Trump dissent.
This week's four-day convention is Trump's highest-profile opportunity to convince voters that he's better suited for the presidency than Clinton, who will be officially nominated at next week's Democratic gathering. But the rocky start raises fresh questions about his oversight of his campaign, which gives voters a window into how a candidate might handle the pressures of the presidency.
The plagiarism accusations center on Monday night's speech by Trump's wife. Two passages from Mrs. Trump's address - each 30 words or longer - matched a 2008 Democratic convention address by Michelle Obama nearly word-for-word.
Trump's campaign managed only to keep the controversy alive on Day 2 of the convention by insisting there was no evidence of plagiarism, while offering no explanation for how the strikingly similar passages wound up in Mrs. Trump's address. The matter consumed news coverage from Cleveland, obscuring Mrs. Trump's broader effort to show her husband's softer side.
Clinton pounced on the tumult, saying the Republican gathering had so far been "surreal," comparing it to the classic fantasy film "Wizard of Oz."
"When you pull back the curtain, it was just Donald Trump with nothing to offer to the American people," Clinton said during a speech in Las Vegas.
Top Trump adviser, Paul Manafort said the matter had been "totally blown out of proportion."
"They're not even sentences. They're literally phrases. I was impressed somebody did their homework to think that that could be possibly done," Manafort told The Associated Press.
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Conventions are massive organizational undertakings, with thousands of attendees to manage and dozens of speakers to oversee. But the week long gathering pales in comparison to the scope of a president's responsibilities as head of the U.S. government.
Republican leaders hoping to leave Cleveland with a strong show of party unity also found themselves answering unwelcome questions. Republican National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus said he "probably" would have fired his own speechwriters under similar circumstances and acknowledged the matter was a distraction.
It was unclear whether the controversy would have any bearing on how voters view Trump. The businessman has survived numerous politically perilous moments that might have doomed other candidates.
Manafort, a longtime Republican operative, has emerged as a controversial and pivotal figure in Trump's Cleveland operations. He led efforts to successfully tamp down a rebellion on the convention floor Monday, though the campaign still had to contend with angry outbursts from anti-Trump delegates.
The campaign chairman also upended Republicans' unity message by slamming Ohio Gov. John Kasich in his home state. He called Kasich "petulant" and "embarrassing" for not endorsing Trump or attending the convention, drawing quick condemnation from other GOP leaders worried about angering the popular governor of one of the most important election states.
Following the roll call vote, a parade of Trump's former campaign rivals, Republican leaders who are lukewarm about his nomination and more family members are scheduled to take center stage. Republicans will be closely watching House Speaker Paul Ryan, who has endorsed Trump despite disagreeing with him on numerous issues.
Tiffany Trump, the candidate's 22-year-old daughter from his marriage to Marla Maples, and Donald Trump Jr., his eldest son and an executive vice president at The Trump Organization, were scheduled to speak. Both were expected to highlight a more personal side of their father than is often seen in public.
Speaking to reporters on the convention floor, Trump Jr. said he was proud of Mrs. Trump's speech, but said he imagined there were people "who should have cleaned it up better."
Mrs. Trump was widely praised for her success in doing just that, despite the plagiarism charges. She spoke of her husband's "simple goodness" and his loyalty and love of family - while noting the "drama" that comes with Trump in politics.