Federal agents on Tuesday caught 31-year-old Carter Tillery at an apartment complex in Houston.
Tillery was serving 30 years in a federal prison in West Virginia for the 2009 robbery of a business in Petersburg, Va.
He was transferred to the Piedmont Regional Jail in Farmville, Va., to appear on weapons and assault charges.
Prosecutors withdrew those charges May 17. Officers later mistakenly released Tillery instead of returning him to federal custody in Hazleton, W.Va.
His mistaken release was not discovered until May 25. Investigators had been monitoring a Houston person who's acquainted with Tillery.
His original release date was 2036. He faces return to Virginia on an escape warrant.