Salem police said Villanueva-Castro was indicted in Austin, Texas, in 1999 on aggravated sexual assault of a child charges.
Villanueva-Castro fled Texas but was arrested in Salem in 2001 after a traffic stop. He was extradited to Texas but failed to complete his trial and apparently fled to Mexico.
The trial continued without him and he was sentenced to 70 years in prison in Texas.
Detectives said Villanueva-Castro moved to Oregon in 2007 and became the target of an investigation in Salem last month, leading to his arrest on Tuesday.