"We have set out to take a first step toward rebuilding trust," Indian Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao told reporters after the talks.
No issues were resolved in the meeting, which India billed only as "talks about talks."
But just meeting after 15 months to reduce tensions was seen as an important achievement that could help Pakistan concentrate its resources on supporting the U.S. in its fight against the Taliban and al-Qaida.
Pakistan has called for the resumption of comprehensive peace talks, but India has demanded it crack down on militant groups operating from its soil first, especially Hafiz Saeed, a militant leader India accuses of orchestrating the Mumbai siege.
Rao said she reiterated to Pakistani Foreign Secretary Salman Bashir that his Islamic nation must do more to dismantle terror networks and gave him dossiers on those linked to the Mumbai attacks, an al-Qaida-linked militant who has issued threats against India, and Indian fugitives hiding in Pakistan.
Pakistan is trying seven men on charges they planned and carried out the Mumbai attacks, which led to the deaths of 166 people, but the militant network blamed for the assault continues to operate relatively freely in the Pakistani city of Lahore.
Pakistan used the meeting to raise broader issues including the dispute over Kashmir, allegations that India is aiding militants in the Pakistani province of Baluchistan and a conflict over shared water resources, Rao said.
India also called on Pakistan to investigate reported claims of responsibility for the bombing of a cafe in the city of Pune two weeks ago, she said.
There was no immediate comment from Pakistani officials, who were to hold a news conference later Thursday.
The United States has pushed the two sides to resume talks in hopes that a reduction in tensions would help Pakistan shift its focus from the Indian border to the offensive against Taliban militants along its border with Afghanistan.
The talks are a political risk for New Delhi because of public mistrust of Pakistan. However, the government does not want to write off diplomacy and wants to keep tensions low between the countries.
In the end, the meeting was less about the issues and more about getting two countries that have fought three wars and countless skirmishes back to the negotiating table.
There was no talk of a second meeting, but Rao said she and Bashir had agreed to remain in contact.
India is convinced that "we must not shut the door on dialogue with Pakistan and that such dialogue, if it gathers momentum, holds tremendous potential for the progress and well being of the people of our region," she said.